Umthombo oshintshiwe: uyini, umehluko nomugqa, futhi wenzelwe ini

umthombo oshintshiwe

Una umthombo oshintshiwe kuyinto kagesi ekwazi ukuguqula amandla kagesi ngochungechunge lwe izingxenye zikagesi, njengama-transistors, ama-voltage regulators, njll. Lokho wukuthi, kuyi- amandla kagesi, kepha ngomehluko maqondana nalawo aqondile. Le mithombo yaziwa nangokuthi I-SMPS (Ukunikezwa Kwamandla Okushintsha Imodi), futhi okwamanje isetshenziselwa ubuningi bezicelo ...

Yini ukunikezwa kwamandla

Umthombo we-ATX

Una ukunikezwa kwamandla, noma i-PSU (i-Power Supply Unit), iyisetshenziswa esisetshenziselwa ukuletha ugesi ngokufanele ezingxenyeni noma ezinhlelweni ezahlukene. Inhloso yawo ukuthola amandla kunethiwekhi kagesi bese uyiguqulela kumthamo ofanele nowamanje ukuze izinto ezixhunyiwe zisebenze kahle.

Ukunikezwa kwamandla ngeke kuguqule kuphela amandla okuphuma kwawo maqondana nokufakwa kwawo, kepha kungaguqula namandla awo, lungisa futhi usimamise ukuguqula kusuka kokushintshayo kwamanje kuye kumanje okuqondile. Lokhu kwenzeka emthonjeni we-PC, ngokwesibonelo, noma ku-adaptha ukushaja ibhethri. Kulezi zimo, i-CA izosuka kokujwayelekile i-50 Hz ne-220 / 240v, iye ku-DC ku-3.3v, 5v, 6v, 12v, nokunye okunje ...

Imithombo yolayini vs imithombo eshintshiwe: umehluko

umthombo oshintshiwe

Uma ukhumbula ifayili le- ama-adaptha noma amashaja kwezingcingo ezindala, zazinkulu futhi zisinda. Lokho bekungamandla kagesi aqondile, kuyilapho amalambu anamuhla alula futhi ahlanganiswe ngokwengeziwe eshintsha amandla kagesi. Umehluko:

  • Ku-a ifonti eqondile ukungezwani kwamandla kagesi kuncishiswa nge-transformer, ukuze kamuva ilungiswe onkulunkulu. Izophinda ibe nesinye isigaba esinama-capacitor kagesi noma amanye ama-voltage stabilizers. Inkinga ngalolu hlobo lwe-transformer ukuphela kwamandla ngendlela yokushisa ngenxa ye-transformer. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lesi siguquli asigcini nje ngokuba nomgogodla osindayo nosindayo, kepha ukuthola imisinga ephezulu yokukhipha bazodinga ukugoqa ngocingo lwethusi olujiyile, ngaleyo ndlela kukhulise isisindo nosayizi.
  • I-Las imithombo eshintshiwe Basebenzisa inqubo efanayo yenqubo, kepha inokwehluka. Isibonelo, kulezi zimo zandisa imvamisa yamanje, isuka ku-50 Hz (eYurophu) iye ku-100 Khz. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukulahleka kuncishisiwe futhi nosayizi we-transformer wehlisiwe kakhulu, ngakho-ke kuzoba lula futhi kuhambisane. Ukwenza lokhu kwenzeke, baguqula i-AC ibe yi-DC, bese isuka ku-DC iye ku-AC ngemvamisa ehlukile kuneyokuqala, bese beguqula i-AC ibuyele ku-DC.

Namuhla, amandla kagesi ahambisanayo cishe banyamalala, ngenxa yesisindo nobukhulu bayo. Manje okushintshiwe kusetshenziswa kakhulu kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezinhlelo zokusebenza.

Ngakho-ke, i okuvelele kuya ngendlela eyisisekelo yokusebenza, yilezi:

  • El usayizi nesisindo ezinye eziqondile zingabonakala, kuze kufike ku-10 kg kwezinye izimo. Ngenkathi kushintshiwe, isisindo singaba ngamagremu ambalwa kuphela.
  • Endabeni Amandla wokukhipha, imithombo eqondile ilawula okukhishwayo kusetshenziswa amanani aphakeme kakhulu asuka ezigabeni ezedlule abese ekhiqiza amanani aphansi kokukhiphayo kwawo. Endabeni yemodi eshintshiwe, angalingana, aphansi, futhi aguqulwe kunalawo wokufaka, okwenza kube nokusebenziseka okuningi.
  • La ukusebenza kahle nokusabalalisa Kuyahluka futhi, ngoba lezo ezishintshiwe zisebenza kahle, zisebenzisa amandla kangcono, futhi aziqedi ukushisa okungako, ngakho-ke ngeke zidinge amasistimu amakhulu kangaka okupholisa.
  • La ubunzima iphakeme ngandlela thile kushintshiwe ngenxa yenani elikhulu lezigaba.
  • Amafonti womugqa awakhiqizi ukuphazamiseka imvamisa, ngakho-ke kungcono kakhulu lapho ukuphazamiseka kungafanele kwenzeke. Esishintshiwe sisebenza ngamafrikhwensi aphakeme, yingakho kungekuhle kangako ngalomqondo.
  • El isici samandla ngoba imithombo eqondile iphansi, ngoba amandla adonswa kuma-voltage spikes kulayini wamandla. Lokhu akunjalo kulabo abashintshiwe, noma ngabe kufakwe izigaba zangaphambilini ukulungisa le nkinga ngezinga elikhulu, ikakhulukazi kumadivayisi athengiswa eYurophu.

Ukusebenza

umthombo oshintshiwe

Umthombo: Avnet

Ukuze uqonde kahle ukusebenza komthombo wokushintsha, izigaba zalo ezihlukile kufanele zihlelwe njengamabhulokhi, njengoba kungabonakala esithombeni esedlule. Lawa mabhulokhi anomsebenzi wawo othile:

  • Hlunga 1: inesibopho sokuqeda izinkinga zenethiwekhi kagesi, njengomsindo, i-harmonics, okwedlula, njll. Konke lokhu kungaphazamisa ukusebenza kwezakhi ezinikwe amandla.
  • Isilungisi: umsebenzi wawo ukugwema ukuthi ingxenye yesignali ye-sinusoidal idlula, okungukuthi, ukuthi i-current idlula kuphela ohlangothini olulodwa, okwenza igagasi ngendlela ye-pulse.
  • Isilungisi sezinto zamandla: uma ngabe okwamanje kungaphandle kwesigaba maqondana namandla kagesi, wonke amandla wenethiwekhi ngeke asetshenziswe kahle, futhi lo mqondisi uxazulula le nkinga.
  • I-Condenser: Ama-capacitors azonciphisa isignali yokushaya kwenhliziyo ephuma esigabeni esedlule, agcine imali ayikhokhayo ayenze iphume kahle, icishe ifane nesiginali eqhubekayo.
  • Transistor / Isilawuli: isebenza njengokulawula ukudlula kwamanje, ukusika nokwenza kusebenze ukudlula, okuguqula okwedlule okucishe kube yisicaba kube okushayayo. Konke kuzolawulwa yisilawuli, esingasebenza futhi njengesici sokuvikela.
  • Inguquko: kunciphisa amandla we-voltage wokufaka kwayo ukuyivumelanisa namandla kagesi aphansi (noma ama-voltages amaningi aphansi) ekuphumeni kwayo.
  • I-Diode: izoguqula amandla ashintshanayo aphuma ku-transformer abe yi-pulsating yamanje.
  • Hlunga 2: isuka ekushayeni kwamanje iye futhi kokuqhubekayo.
  • I-Optocoupler: izokuxhumanisa okukhipha umthombo nesekethe yokulawulwa komthethonqubo olungile, uhlobo lwempendulo.

Izinhlobo zemithombo

Isignali evela ekunikezelweni kwamandla

Imithombo eshintshiwe ingahlukaniswa kane izinhlobo okuyisisekelo:

  • AC okokufaka / DC okukhipha: Iqukethe i-rectifier, commutator, transformer, rectifier okukhiphayo nesihlungi. Isibonelo, ukunikezwa kwamandla kwe-PC.
  • AC okokufaka / AC okukhipha: imane iqukethe inverter yokuvama kanye nesiguquli semvamisa. Isibonelo sesicelo kungaba yimoto kagesi.
  • Okufakwayo kwe-DC / okukhipha i-AC: Kuyaziwa njengomtshali-zimali, futhi abavami kakhulu njengangaphambili. Isibonelo, zingatholakala kuma-generator ka-220v ku-50Hz kusuka kubhethri.
  • Okufakwayo kwe-DC / DC okukhiphayo: yi-voltage noma isiguquli samanje. Isibonelo, njengamanye amashaja webhethri wamadivayisi eselula asetshenziswa ezimotweni.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.