Zonke iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC ngokusetyenziswa kunye neempawu

iintlobo koomatshini cnc

Amanqaku exesha elizayo aza kuchaza iinkcukacha iintlobo koomatshini cnc ezikhoyo ngokomsebenzi wazo, ezinje ngeelathe, oomatshini bokungqusha, irutha okanye ukusika, ukukrola, ukugrumba, njl. Nangona kunjalo, kweli nqaku siza kugxila ekwazini iintlobo ngokwezinto ezinokusebenza nazo, kwaye nangokuhambelana nenkululeko yokuhamba abanayo, oko kukuthi, ngokweezembe. Oku kubalulekile ukwazi ukusetyenziswa kunye nezinto ezinokwenzeka ukuba ezinye iintlobo zoomatshini ziya kubonelela ngokomsebenzi wabo.

Iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC

iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC

Njengoko sele ndikhankanyile, la maqela angahlelwa ngokwezinto ezininzi. Siza kushiya uhlalutyo lweentlobo ngokwemisebenzi yazo yamanqaku exesha elizayo, kuba kuya kubakho ukupapashwa ngokukodwa okuzinikele kuhlobo ngalunye ngobunzulu. Apha siza kugxila kwiindlela ezimbini zoluhlu iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC eziqhelekileyo kuzo zonke iindidi ngokomsebenzi wabo.

Ngokwezixhobo

Ngokwezixhobo ukuba umatshini we-CNC unokusebenzisa ungahlelwa ngokwamaqela amaninzi. Kodwa kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba iipropathi zomatshini zetsimbi zinokuhluka kakhulu, kwaye azikho zonke ezivumela zonke iintlobo zomatshini okanye ngendlela efanayo.

Khumbula ukuba iimpawu zoomatshini yemathiriyeli ingaba: ukuqina, ukuqina, ukuqina, ukuguquguquka, ukuqina, ukuqina kunye nokuqina. Isixhobo esisetyenzisiweyo, iindleko kunye nexesha lomatshini liya kuxhomekeka kubo. Kwakhona, abantu abaninzi badibanisa ubulukhuni kunye nobuthathaka kunye nezinto ezichaseneyo kwaye akuyonyani. Isixhobo sinokuba nzima kakhulu kwaye sibe brittle ngexesha elinye. Umzekelo, iglasi inzima kuba akulula ukuyikrwempa njengoko kuya kuba njalo umthi, nangona kunjalo ukhuni luncinci kuneglasi njengoko unokuluwisa kwaye aluyi kuphuka lube ziingceba ngelixa iglasi iya kwenza.

Umatshini we-CNC wentsimbi

La umatshini we-cnc wentsimbi Nguye izixhobo zakhe ezinokusebenza ngolu hlobo lwezixhobo kunye ne-alloys yazo. Ubungakanani bezinto zetsimbi ezinokuthi zisebenze umatshini ziya kuxhomekeka kwimodeli kunye nezixhobo ezinokusingatha. Kodwa zihlala zizixhobo ezisetyenziswa ngokubanzi ukwenza zonke iintlobo zamalungu ngenxa yeempawu zabo zomatshini. Iintsimbi kunye ne-alloys zetsimbi ezifanelekileyo kwi-CNC machining kufuneka zibe neempawu ezithile zomatshini ezibandakanya amandla, ukuguquguquka, ukuqina, njl.

Entre ezona zimbiwa zidumileyo yeCNC igqame:

  • Aluminium: yintsimbi enengeniso efanelekileyo yomatshini weCNC. Ilula, ilula umatshini, inamandla, kwaye ingasetyenziselwa kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo zezicelo, ukusuka kwiifestile, iingcango, izakhiwo zezithuthi, i-heat sinks, njl. Phakathi kweentlobo ezisetyenziswa kakhulu ze-aluminiyam zezi:
    • IAluminiyam 6061: ukumelana kakuhle neemeko zemozulu, nangona kungekho kakhulu kwiikhemikhali kunye namanzi etyuwa. Isetyenziswe ngokubanzi kwiingubo, iingcango, iifestile, njl.
    • IAluminiyam 7075: i-ductile kakhulu, i-resistant, kunye nokumelana nokukhathala, yingakho isoloko isetyenziselwa izithuthi kunye nemboni ye-aerospace, nangona inzima kakhulu kumatshini (akulula ukwenza iindawo ezinzima ezinjalo).
  • I-Acero inokufumaneka: ilula kakhulu kumatshini, kodwa idibanisa iimpawu ezintle ezifana neendleko zayo eziphantsi, ukuchasana kwayo, kunye nokungenasiphelo kokusetyenziswa kwayo. Ngokuqinisekileyo sijikelezwe ngamaqhekeza entsimbi ukuba sijonga ngeenxa zonke kuthi. Kwi-CNC, ezona ndidi zixhaphakileyo zezi:
    • 304: ixhaphake kakhulu, kwaye ingasetyenziselwa kwizicelo ezininzi zasekhaya, ukusuka kwizinto ezigubungelayo kunye nezakhiwo zezixhobo zombane, izixhobo zasekhitshini, ngeepayipi, njl. Inokuweldability elungileyo kunye nokwakheka.
    • 303: Ngenxa yeempawu zayo zokuchasana nokugqwala, ukuqina kunye nokuqina, le ntsimbi ene-sulfure isetyenziselwa ukwenza ii-axles, iigiya, izixhobo zezithuthi zazo zonke iintlobo, njl.
    • 316: Yintsimbi eyomeleleyo ngokumangalisayo kwaye imelana nomhlwa, ngoko iluncedo kwezinye izifakelo zonyango, kwishishini le-aerospace, njl.
  • Acero: Le intsimbi-carbon ingxubevange zitshiphu kakhulu, nangaphezulu kunentsimbi stainless. Ayinikezeli ukuxhathisa okufanayo kwe-corrosion, kodwa ineempawu ezifanayo kwezinye iinkalo. Phakathi kwezona ntlobo zisetyenziswa kakhulu kumatshini weCNC zezi:
    • 4140 intsimbi: intsimbi enomxholo ophantsi wekhabhoni, kodwa ifakwe kwi-manganese, i-chromium kunye ne-molybdenum. Ibalasele ngokuxhathisa kwayo okuphezulu ekudinweni, ukuqina, kunye nokuxhathisa impembelelo. Ngesi sizathu, inomtsalane kakhulu kwizicelo ezininzi zamashishini, njengecandelo lokwakha.
  • titanium: yintsimbi ebiza kakhulu, kodwa ineepropati ezintle kakhulu, ezifana ne-conductivity ephantsi ye-thermal, ukuchasana kwayo okuphezulu, kunye nokukhanya kwayo, nangona ingavumeli ukucwangciswa ngokulula njengangaphambili. Umzekelo:
    • Ti6AI4V iBanga lesi-5: Le alloy inomlinganiselo obalaseleyo wokuqina kobunzima, ukumelana kakuhle neekhemikhali kunye nobushushu. Yingakho isetyenziselwa izicelo ezivezwe kwiimeko ezigqithisileyo, ukufakelwa kwezonyango, kwicandelo le-aerospace, kunye neenqwelo eziphezulu okanye i-motorsport.
  • Ubhedu: Le alloy yobhedu kunye ne-zinc ivumela umatshini olula kakhulu, nangona ingeyiyo enye yeentsimbi ezincinci. Inobulukhuni obuphakathi kunye namandla aphezulu okuqina, iyenza ilunge kumbane, unyango, kunye nosetyenziso lweemoto.
  • ICopper: yintsimbi evumela umatshini ogqwesileyo, kodwa inexabiso eliphezulu. Iipropathi zayo ziyenza ibentle kumashishini ombane, ombane kunye nobushushu, njengoko ingumqhubi omkhulu wombane kunye nobushushu. Umzekelo, iinxalenye ezihambisa umbane okanye iitsinki zobushushu zinokwenziwa, njengoko kwakunjalo nge-aluminiyam.
  • wemagniziyam: Yenye yezona ntsimbi zilula kumatshini ngenxa yeempawu zayo. Ikwanayo ne-thermal conductivity ephezulu, kwaye ikhaphukhaphu (i-35% ikhaphukhaphu kune-aluminiyam), iyenza ibe ntle kwiimoto kunye neendawo ze-aerospace. I-drawback enkulu kukuba yintsimbi evuthayo, ngoko uthuli, ii-chips, njl., zinokutshisa kwaye zibangele umlilo. I-Magnesium inokutshiswa phantsi kwamanzi, i-CO2 kunye ne-nitrogen. Umzekelo osetyenziselwa i-CNC ngulo:
    • AZ31: igqwesileyo kumatshini kunye nebakala le-aerospace.
  • abanye: Ewe kunjalo, zininzi ezinye iintsimbi ezicocekileyo kunye ne-alloys ezinokuthi zenziwe nge-CNC, nangona ezi zithandwa kakhulu.

Ngethuba lenkqubo yoyilo lweCAD yala macandelo esinyithi, iimpawu zezi zinyithi kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo. Ukongeza, oomatshini be-CNC ukuze basebenze kufuneka babe nezixhobo ezifanelekileyo kunye namandla ayimfuneko okwenza oko. Kwelinye icala, xa machining metal by CNC ezinye izinto kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo: usetyenziso olucetywayo/iipropati eziyimfuneko kunye neendleko zizonke (iindleko zezinto eziphathekayo + iindleko zomatshini). Ngakolunye uhlangothi, injongo yoomatshini abaninzi be-CNC kukuvelisa inani eliphezulu lamacandelo ngexabiso eliphantsi kakhulu kwaye ngexesha elifutshane. Okulula isinyithi kukumatshini, ixesha elincinci kunye neendleko ziya kuthatha, nangona oku kuya kuxhomekeka kubunzima benxalenye.

Okokugqibela, ndingathanda ukugxininisa ukuba nayo ibalulekile ukugqiba kunye nasemva kokulungiswa enokuthi inikwe kwiintsimbi emva komatshini we-CNC. Umzekelo, ezinye iindawo ziya kufuna ukupolisha ukususa amanqaku aveliswe zizixhobo ze-CNC, ukususa ii-burrs emva kokusika, unyango olungaphezulu (i-galvanized, painted,...) ukukhusela ukubola okanye ngenxa yezizathu zobuhle, njl.

Umatshini we-CNC womthi

Kukho i iinkuni ezininzi ekhoyo kwimarike, kubandakanywa ibhodi yamasuntswana, i-MDF, i-plywood, njl. Ukhuni, ngokubanzi, luvumela ukwenziwa kwe-machining lula, ngoko ke isetyenziswa ngokubanzi ukugaya, ukusika kunye nokujika. Ukongeza, zizinto eziphathekayo ezingabizi kakhulu, kwaye zininzi. Kwelinye icala, iqhele ukuba sesona sixhobo sisetyenziswa kakhulu koomatshini basekhaya be-CNC abasetyenziswa ngabanye abenzi kunye nabathandi be-DIY.

Abanye imizekelo yomthi ukusebenza kunye CNC zezi:

  • iinkuni ezinzima: zidla ngokuba ziinkuni ezingaqhelekanga ezinokuqina okukhulu kunye nomgangatho. Ziyabiza, kodwa iinkozo zazo eziqinileyo zibenza baxhathise kakhulu kwizicelo ezininzi. Ezi zifuna izixhobo eziqinileyo nezinzima ukuze zisebenze, kwaye zinokuthatha ixesha elide. Nangona kunjalo, zinokuba ngcono kunezo zithambileyo xa kuziwa kwimizobo entsonkothileyo okanye iimilo ezintsonkothileyo. Eminye imizekelo eqhelekileyo yile:
    • Fresno: Umbala okhanyayo, umthi onzima kunye neempawu ezibalaseleyo zoomatshini ezifana nokuqina kunye nokuqina. Ingasetyenziselwa izitulo, iitafile, iintonga zehoki, amalulwane e-baseball, iirakethi zentenetya, njl.
    • Haya: ifana neyangaphambili ngokwemiqathango yokuchasana, kodwa iguquguquka ngakumbi. Ke ngoko, unokwakha ifanitshala enemilo egobileyo ngaphandle kokuqhekeka. Ekubeni ingenavumba, ingasetyenziselwa amacephe, iipleyiti, iiglasi, iibhodi zokusika, njl. Kakade ke, lo mthi awukhuthazwa ukuba ukrolwe.
    • Birch: inzima kakhulu, ifana ne-oki okanye i-walnut. Umbala wayo ucacile, ayigobi lula, yomelele kwaye ibamba izikrufu kakuhle. Ngoko ke, ingasetyenziselwa ukuqiniswa kwezakhiwo zefenitshala.
    • Itsheri: Inombala obomvu obomvu omdaka, womelele kakuhle, ayikhubazeki lula, kulula ukuyikrola, kwaye ilukhuni. Ngoko ke, ingasetyenziselwa imihlobiso eqingqiweyo, ifenitshala, izixhobo zomculo, njl. Kodwa kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo xa usebenza ngezixhobo ezibuthuntu, njengoko zinokuvelisa amanqaku okutsha ngenxa yokukhuhlana.
    • Elm: Ukukhanya okuphakathi kombala obomvu obomvu, ubunzima obuphezulu, kwaye bukhulu kwiibhodi zokusika, ifenitshala, iipaneli zokuhombisa, amalulwane eHockey kunye neentonga, njl. Kakade ke, inokonakala ukuba i-spindle yamandla ephantsi isetyenziselwa ukuyisika ngeentsinga zayo.
    • Mahogany: Idume kakhulu ngokubonakala kwayo kunye nokuqina, kunye nombala obomvu obomvu obomvu. Ichasene kakhulu nomonakalo wamanzi kwaye ifanelekile ukwakha izikebhe, iikhati, ifenitshala, izixhobo zomculo, i-flooring (i-parquet), njl.
    • Imephu: yenye yeyona nto inzima kwaye ihlala ixesha elide, kwaye ayifuni unyango oluninzi emva komatshini. Efanelekileyo kwiidesika, iitafile zomsebenzi, imigangatho, iibhodi zokusika iibhula, kunye nezinye izixhobo ezifuna ukujamelana "nonyango olubi."
    • Oak: ukhuni oluchasayo ukuphuka, ukumelana nomswakama kunye nemozulu, kunye nobunzima, kunye nokuthakazelisa kwimbono ye-aesthetic. Kungenxa yoko le nto ingasetyenziselwa ifenitshala yangaphandle, ukwakha iinqanawa, njl. Ngenxa yeempawu zayo ezinqamlezileyo, uya kufuna ukwenza iipasi ezingenzulwanga ngenxa yokusikwa kwayo, kwaye usebenzise ngcono izisiki ezinencam ye-carbide.
    • Walnut: Ngumthi wexabiso eliphezulu, nombala omdaka oqinileyo. Kodwa iyamelana nomothuko, inzima, ayitshi lula ngexesha lomatshini, nangona iipaseji ezinzulu kufuneka zenziwe ukwenzela ukusika ukuphepha ukuphuka. Ukusetyenziswa kwesi sixhobo kunokuvela kwimipu, kwimifanekiso eqingqiweyo kunye nemizobo yokunceda, ngokusebenzisa izitya ezijikiweyo, ifenitshala kunye nezixhobo zomculo.
  • Iinkuni ezithambileyo: Zilukhetho oluhle lwabaqalayo okanye iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC abangenamandla kakhulu. Ukongeza, ukuba zingabizi kwaye kulula ukuzifumana, zinokucetyiswa ukuchwela ngexabiso eliphantsi. Bade banomnye umba olungileyo, kwaye oko kukuba ababangela ukunxiba okungaka kwizixhobo. Nangona kunjalo, abanazo iimpawu ezifanayo nezo zinzima. Eminye imizekelo eqhelekileyo yile:
    • Umsedare: Inevumba elimnandi, kunye nethowuni entle ebomvu-mdaka, enamaqhina anokwenza kube nzima ukungqusha. Iyamelana nemozulu, ngoko ke uya kuba nakho ukwenza ifenitshala yangaphandle, izikhephe, iingcingo, izithuba, njl. Ayitshi lula ngesantya esicothayo somatshini njengeenzima.
    • ICypress: inokumelana kakuhle nokubola, ithambile, kulula ukuyisebenzisa, nangona inamaqhina anokwenza kube nzima ukusebenza ngeebhloko ezinkulu. Ingasetyenziselwa iikhabhathi, ifenitshala, iifestile, i-trim, kunye nepaneli.
    • Abeto: kulula ukusebenza ngokhuni, kunye nepateni ehambelanayo, ethambileyo, kwaye ihlala ixesha elide. Nangona ingekho phakathi kwemithi enzima, inokusetyenziselwa imigangatho.
    • Pine: Ngumthi onexabiso eliphantsi, nombala obhatshileyo kunye nobunzima obulula. Ibambe imilo yayo kakuhle kwaye ayishwabene kakhulu. Kunzima ngokwaneleyo ukwenza ukuchwela kube nzima. Ubude bokusika kufuneka buncitshiswe ukunqanda ukutshiphuza, kwaye isantya esikhawulezayo sokusonta kufuneka sisetyenziswe ukunqanda umonakalo.
    • Redwood: ukhuni olunombala obomvu, oluchasene kakhulu nokubola kunye nokukhanya kwelanga. Kulula ukwenza umatshini kwaye isiphumo sigudileyo kakhulu. Isenokuba lukhetho olulungileyo lokukrola, ukwenza iinkcukacha ezintsonkothileyo, okanye kwizinto eziza kuba ngaphandle. Ewe, izixhobo ezibukhali kakhulu kufuneka zisetyenziswe ukunqanda ukukrazula nokukrazula.
    • Abeto: Yenye yezona zinto zinzima ngaphakathi kwi-spectrum ye-softwoods. Ikhaphukhaphu, kodwa isesichengeni sokubola. Kulula ukusebenza nayo, kwaye iyafikeleleka. Inokuba yinto entle njengeepaneli, izixhobo zomculo, ifenitshala, njl.
    • MDF: Eli gama lithetha i-fiberboard ephakathi, uhlobo lomthi owenziwe ngobunjineli (owenziwe ngumntu) osetyenziselwa ifenitshala, iingcango, njl. Ixabiso eliphantsi kakhulu njengoko yenziwe ngenkunkuma eqinileyo kunye nethambileyo eyenziwe ngamaplanga adityaniswe nomthwebeba kunye neereyini. Ixinene kuneplywood kwaye isebenza ngokulula, ngaphandle kokuqhekeka okanye ukwaphuka lula (isantya sokutya kunye nesantya sokusonta kufuneka sanele, njengoko zifudumeza ngokukhawuleza kwaye zinokutshisa), kwaye ziya kuba nesiphelo esigudileyo. Nangona kunjalo, inokuba nokuxhathisa okungcono kwicala elinye kunelinye, into engalunganga kumalungu ekufuneka omelele okanye kwizakhiwo. Enye ingcaciso ebalulekileyo yi-aesthetic, ekubeni ayinikezeli ingqolowa yomthi wendalo, ngoko idinga ukupeyinta, okanye ukusetyenziswa kwamaphepha okuhlobisa. Njengesilumkiso, sitsho ukuba iinqununu ezintle ezifakwe ngaphakathi ngexesha leenkqubo kunye ne-MDF ziyingozi kwimpilo, kuba ayikho nje imithi. Nxiba imaski.
    • iplywood: Yenziwe ngamashiti amaninzi acekethekileyo omthi adityaniswe kunye. Inobunzima obungaphantsi kwamanye amaplanga aqinileyo, kwaye inokufaneleka kwiikhabhathi zokuxhoma, kunye nezinye iindleko eziphantsi, izinto eziphantsi. Kufuneka uthathe izilumkiso xa usebenza ngalo naluphi na uhlobo oomatshini CNC, njengoko ithambekele chip

Kufuneka kwakhona qwalasela ezinye iinkalo Kubalulekile xa ukhetha iinkuni ezifanelekileyo kwiprojekthi yakho:

  • Ubungakanani beenkozo: iinkozo ezicolekileyo zezomthi othambileyo, iinkozo ezirhabaxa zezomthi oqinileyo. I-grained ecolekileyo kulula ukuyiguba, kodwa i-grained-grained inika ukuguda okukhulu kunye nokugqiba okungcono.
  • umxholo wokufuma: Iphazamisa ukuguquguquka kunye nokuqina komthi, kunye nokugqiba ngexesha lokukrola kunye namazinga okutya onokufikelela kuwo. Eyona nto ilungele ukukrolwa ngumthi phakathi kwe-6-8% yokufuma. Ukufuma kuya kuqinisekisa ubushushu besixhobo ngexesha lenkqubo, kwaye kwi-1% nganye yokufuma okunyukayo, iqondo lobushushu liya kunyuka malunga ne-21ºC. Kwakhona, ukufuma okuphantsi kunokubangela ukuba umphezulu ukrazuke ngokugqithisileyo kwaye ukufuma okuninzi kunokubangela iindawo ezifuze ngakumbi.
  • Amaqhina: ezi ziindawo apho amasebe ajoyina i-trunk, kwaye ngokuqhelekileyo anemicu kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo kwaye anzima kwaye amnyama. Xa usebenza ngomatshini we-CNC, utshintsho olukhawulezayo lobulukhuni lunokubangela ukulayishwa komothuko, ngoko ke kufuneka usebenzise iiparamitha ezifanelekileyo okanye usebenzise imiyalelo ethintela la maqhina.
  • izinga langaphambili: yi-feedrate apho isixhobo sidlula phezu kwenxalenye yomhlaba. Ukuba iphantsi kakhulu inokubangela ukutshisa phezu kweenkuni, kwaye ukuba iphezulu kakhulu ingabangela i-splinters. Uninzi lweemodeli zoomatshini zihlala zinesetingi ezahlukeneyo zokusebenza ngezinto ezininzi, abanye baya kufuna ukuba uzihlengahlengise ngesandla.
  • ZixhoboQaphela: Ukongeza ekukhetheni oomatshini be-CNC abanezijikelezo ezilinganiswe ubuncinane kwi-1 ukuya kwi-1.5 hp (0.75 ukuya ku-1.11 kW) ukuphumeza isantya esifanelekileyo sokwenza amaplanga, isixhobo esisetyenzisiweyo (kunye nokutshintshwa xa sigugile okanye siphelile) kubalulekile:
    • ukusikwa kokunyuka: Basusa iitshiphusi kwicala eliphezulu, kwaye banokukrazula umphetho ophezulu wesixhobo sokusebenza.
    • ukusika phantsi: Zityhala iinkuni ezisikiweyo, zinika umphetho ogudileyo ongaphezulu, kodwa zinokubangela ukukrazula kwinqanaba elisezantsi.
    • ngqo cut: Azikho kwi-angle ukuya kwindawo yokusika, ngoko ke zinika ibhalansi phakathi kwezimbini zangaphambili. Ngokuphambene noko, banokuthi isantya sokususwa kwezinto eziphathekayo asikho ngokukhawuleza kwaye bavame ukutshisa ngakumbi.
    • Uxinzelelo: Luhlobo lwesixhobo esinobude beemilimitha ezimbalwa kwaye sinokufezekisa ukusika okanye ukuhla ngokulawula ubunzulu bokusika. Oku kuvumela ukugqitywa komphetho ogudileyo nasezantsi.

Ezinye izinto

Ewe kunjalo, kukho oomatshini be-CNC abanokusebenza ngezinto ezininzi ngokutshintshisa izixhobo. Kwakhona ezinye iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC abaqalayo ngaphaya komthi kunye nesinyithi. Eminye imizekelo yemathiriyeli efanelekileyo kwi-CNC yile:

  • Nylon: I-polymer ye-thermoplastic ephantsi-friction engasetyenziselwa njengenye indlela yesinyithi kwezinye iimeko. Yimathiriyeli eqinile, eyomeleleyo, enokumelana neempembelelo ezinokumelana neekhemikhali ezilungileyo kunye nelastiki emangalisayo. Ingasetyenziselwa iitanki, iinxalenye ze-elektroniki, iigiya, njl.
  • amagwebu: Isixhobo esinokuba namaxabiso ahlukeneyo okuqina kwaye alula kakhulu kwaye ahlala ixesha elide.
  • ezinye iiplastiki: njengePOM, PMMA, acrylic, ABS, polycarbonate okanye PC, kunye nepolypropylene okanye iPP, ipolyurethane, iPVC, irabha, ivinyl, irabha…
  • iikeramics kunye neglasi: i-alumina, i-SiO2, iglasi epholileyo, udongwe, i-feldspar, i-porcelain, i-stoneware, njl.
  • Iifayibha: i-fiberglass, i-carbon fiber...
  • izinto ezininzi: I-ACM okanye iipaneli zesandwich.
  • Iphepha kunye nebhodi ebhaliweyo
  • ilitye lebhastile, igranite, ilitye, isilicon...
  • Isikhumba kunye namanye amalaphu

Ngokweezembe zabo

Iindidi zoomatshini be-CNC ngokweezembe zabo ziya kugqiba inani leedigri ze inkululeko yokuhamba kunye nobunzima beeqhekeza oko kunokusebenza Ezona zibalaseleyo zezi:

3-axis umatshini CNC

Xyz

umatshini 3 ekseni, okanye 3-axis oomatshini CNC, ivumela isixhobo umsebenzi ukusebenza imilinganiselo emithathu okanye imiyalelo ebizwa ngokuba X, Y kunye noZ. Ezi ntlobo zoomatshini zihlala zisetyenziselwa ukwenza i-2D, i-2.5D, kunye nejometri ye-3D. Uninzi koomatshini be-CNC abancinci badla ngokuba nolu qwalaselo lwe-axis, kunye nemizi-mveliso emininzi, kuba yenye yoqwalaselo oluqhelekileyo.

  • Umgca ongu-X kunye noY: ezi zembe zimbini ziya kusebenza indawo ngokuthe tye.
  • Umgca weZ: Ivumela isixhobo amaqondo athe nkqo enkululeko.

I-3-axis CNC machining yayiyindaleko ukusuka ekujikeni okujikelezayo. I inxalenye iya kuba kwindawo yokumisa ngelixa isixhobo sokusika sihamba ngala mazembe mathathu. Ilungele iindawo ezingenazo iinkcukacha ezintsonkothileyo okanye ubunzulu.

4-axis umatshini CNC

oomatshini becnc 4 ekseni zifana nezangaphambili, kodwa i-axis eyongezelelweyo yongezwa ngokujikeleza kwenxalenye. I-axis yesine ibizwa ngokuba yi-axis A kwaye iya kujikeleza ngelixa umatshini ungasebenzi izinto. Nje ukuba inxalenye ikwindawo echanekileyo, i-brake isetyenziswa kuloo axis kwaye ii-axes ze-XYZ ziqhubeka nomatshini inxalenye. Kukho oomatshini abathile abavumela i-XYZA ukuba ihanjiswe ngaxeshanye, kwaye baziwa ngokuba ngoomatshini abaqhubekayo be-CNC.

Olu hlobo loomatshini be-CNC lunokwenza iqondo elikhulu leenkcukacha kunezo zangaphambili, kwaye zinokufaneleka iindawo ezinemingxuma, ii-arches, iisilinda, njl.. Ezi ntlobo zoomatshini zihlala zineengxaki ezimbini, njengokunxitywa kwegiya leentshulube ukuba lisetyenziswe kakhulu, kwaye kunokubakho ukudlala kwi-shaft enokuchaphazela ukuchaneka okanye ukuthembeka komatshini ngenxa yokungcangcazela.

5-axis umatshini CNC

5 i-axis cnc

umatshini wecnc 5 ekseni isekelwe kwisixhobo esineedigri ze-5 zenkululeko okanye izikhokelo ezahlukeneyo. Ukongeza kwi-X, Y, kunye no-Z, kufuneka udibanise ukujikeleza kunye ne-axis ye-A njengakwi-axis emine, kunye nenye enye i-axis eyongezelelweyo ebizwa ngokuba yi-axis ye-B. Oku kuqinisekisa ukuba izixhobo zinokusondela kwinxalenye kuwo onke amacala ngendlela enye. ukusebenza, ngaphandle kwesidingo sokubeka kwakhona inxalenye phakathi kwemisebenzi. I Umgca ka-a kunye no-b ziya kujoliswa ukuzisa iworkpiece kufutshane nesixhobo esiya kuhamba kwi-XYZ.

Ezi ntlobo zoomatshini zaziswa ngenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, zivumela iqondo eliphezulu lokuntsonkotha kunye nokuchaneka okuphezulu. Zihlala zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwizicelo zonyango, uphando kunye nophuhliso, izakhiwo, ishishini lomkhosi, kwicandelo lezemoto, njl. Eyona ngxaki inkulu kukuba uyilo lweCAD/CAM lunokuba nzima, kwaye luhlala lubiza oomatshini kwaye lufuna abaqhubi abanezakhono eziphezulu.

Abanye (ukuya kuthi ga kwi-axes ezili-12)

I-12 axis CNC, iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC

Umthombo: www.engineering.com

Ukongeza kwi-3, 4 kunye ne-5 axis, kukho iintlobo zoomatshini be-CNC abane amazembe amaninzi, ukuya kuthi ga kwi-12. Aba ngoomatshini abaphambili kwaye bayabiza, nangona bengaqhelekanga. Eminye imizekelo yile:

  • 7 i-axis: Ikuvumela ukuba wenze iinxalenye ezinde, ezincinci ezineenkcukacha ezininzi. Kwezi ntlobo zoomatshini be-CNC sinamazembe asekunene-ekhohlo, phezulu-phantsi, umva-phambili, ukujikeleza kwesixhobo, ukujikeleza kwe-workpiece, ukujikeleza kwentloko yesixhobo, kunye nokunyakaza kwe-clamp yomsebenzi.
  • 9 i-axis: Olu hlobo ludibanisa i-lathe kunye ne-5-axis machining. Isiphumo kukuba unokujika kwaye ugaye kunye neenqwelomoya ezininzi ngokuseta okukodwa, kwaye ngokuchanekileyo okukhulu. Ukongeza, ayifuni izixhobo zesibini okanye ukulayisha ngesandla.
  • 12 i-axis: zineentloko ezimbini ze-VMC kunye ne-HMC, nganye kuzo ivumela ukunyakaza kwi-X, Y, Z, A, B kunye ne-C.

Kuxhomekeke kwisixhobo

Kuxhomekeke kwisixhobo ephakamisa umatshini we-CNC, sinokwahlula phakathi:

  • isixhobo nje: zezo zixhoma isixhobo esinye kuphela, nokuba yi-drill bit, i-milling cutter, i-blade, njl. Abanye baba matshini banokwenza kuphela uhlobo olunye lomsebenzi, kwaye abanako ukutshintshelwa kwesinye isixhobo. Abanye bayakwazi ukutshintsha isixhobo, kodwa kufuneka senziwe ngesandla.
  • izixhobo ezininzi ezizenzekelayo: banentloko enezixhobo ezininzi, kwaye bona ngokwabo banokutshintsha ukusuka kwenye ukuya kwenye ngokuzenzekelayo njengoko kufuneka.

Yintoni i-router ye-CNC okanye i-router ye-CNC

cnc umzila

Un umzila okanye i-cnc router isebenzisa intloko yesixhobo efana noomatshini bokungqusha be-CNC. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umahluko phakathi kwezi. Oku ngamanye amaxesha kudala ukubhideka okukhulu, kwaye abaninzi bayababhidanisa noomatshini bokusika be-CNC ngokwabo, okanye basebenzise igama njengesithethantonye se-CNC yokusila.

Umahluko nabanye oomatshini be-CNC

I-router ye-CNC isebenza ngokukhuselekileyo kakhulu.efana nomatshini we-CNC onjenge-lathe okanye umatshini wokugaya. Ii-routers zisetyenziselwa ukuveliswa kweengcango kwishishini lemithi, phakathi kwabanye. Banokwenza ubuninzi bezinto, ukusuka kwimikrolo yomnyango, umhlobiso weepaneli, imizobo efana neempawu, ukubumba, iikhabhinethi, njl. Owona mahluko uphawulekayo ngoomatshini bokungqusha zezi:

  • I-router ifanelekile ekudaleni iiprofayili kunye namaphepha ngesantya esiphezulu. Lo ngomnye umahluko obalulekileyo, kuba oomatshini bokugaya be-CNC abenzelwanga ukuba basebenze ngokukhawuleza.
  • Ngokubanzi, oomatshini bokungqusha be-CNC basetyenziselwa ukungqusha/ukusika izinto eziqina ngakumbi (i-titanium, intsimbi,…), kunye neerutha ze-CNC zezinto ezithambileyo (umthi, ugwebu, iplastiki,…).
  • Iirotha ze-CNC zihlala zingachanekanga kancinci kunoomatshini bokungqusha be-CNC, kodwa baya kukuvumela ukuba wenze iinxalenye ezininzi ngexesha elincinci.
  • Umatshini wokuhambisa i-CNC unexabiso eliphantsi kunomatshini wokungqusha. Abanye oomatshini bokuhamba phambili banokuxabisa malunga ne-euro eyi-2000, ngelixa umatshini wokusila we-CNC womgangatho ofanayo unokuxabisa malunga ne-10.000 yee-euro.
  • Ii-router ze-CNC zihlala zisetyenziselwa umatshini kunye nokusika iindawo ezinkulu (iingcango, iipleyiti, ...).
  • Ngokuphathelele umahluko phakathi kwe-CNC yokusika umzila, kunye nokusika ngolunye uhlobo lomatshini wokusika we-CNC, kukho inyaniso yokuba i-router isebenzisa isantya sokujikeleza kwesixhobo sayo ukwenza ukusika.
  • Enye ingxaki nge-router yokusika kukuba iya kuchitha indawo engaphezulu kunezinye iintlobo zokusika, ekubeni yonke i-diameter ye-drill bit okanye i-milling cutter iya kulahleka.
  • I-router ye-CNC yenza kube lula ukusika kwi-3D.

Kwelinye icala, kukwanjalo ezinye ezifanayo, njengabasiki bokugaya abasetyenziswa njengezixhobo, ezinokuthi zifumaneke kunye neentsimbi ezininzi, kwizinto ezahlukeneyo (i-foam, imithi, iplastiki, ...), njl.

Iindidi zezixhobo zoomatshini be-CNC

Izixhobo ze-CNC

Umthombo: Fictive

Kukwakho nazo iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezixhobo zeCNC enokuxhonywa kwiintloko zomsebenzi. Uhlobo lobuchwephesha obunokwenziwa ngumatshini we-CNC luya kuxhomekeka kubo, kunye nobunzulu, i-radius yesenzo, isantya sokusebenza, njl. Ezinye zezona zibalulekileyo zezi:

  • Ubuso okanye iqokobhe iqunube: Ixhaphake kakhulu, kwaye zilungile ekususeni imathiriyeli kwindawo ebanzi. Umzekelo, ukurhabaxa kokuqala kweqhekeza.

flat end Mill

  • flat end Mill: esinye isixhobo esisemgangathweni esinokubonwa ngobukhulu obuhlukeneyo (ububanzi), kwaye singasetyenziselwa ukusebenza emacaleni kunye nomphezulu weqhekeza, kunye nokusika. Ingasetyenziselwa ukugrumba imingxuma.

i-round end Mill

  • Umjikelo ojikelezayo: ngolunye uhlobo lwe-cutter enesicatshulwa esijikelezileyo, esifana neso sangaphambili, kodwa sinomphetho omncinci, kwiintlobo ezithile zemikrolo.

 

bur obujikelezayo

  • ibhola bur: Ijikelezwe ngokupheleleyo kwincam, ifana nesiphelo esijikelezileyo, kodwa inemilo egqibeleleyo. Ifanelekile kwi-3D contoured surfaces, kwaye ayiyi kushiya iikona ezibukhali njengeziphelo zesikwere.

bhora

  • Gqoka: Ziyafana ne-drills, isixhobo sokubhoboza, ukwenza imingxuma eteyiweyo, uhlengahlengiso oluchanekileyo, njl. Ezi brashi zinokuba nobukhulu obahlukeneyo.

indoda kunye nentambo

  • Amadoda: ukuba uyayazi i-dies, ukwenza imisonto kumphezulu wangaphandle weqhekeza, iimpompo zenza okufanayo kodwa ngaphakathi. Oko kukuthi, ngelixa iifa zingasetyenziselwa ukwenza isikrufu, iimpompo zinokudala amantongomane.

chamfer milling cutter

  • chamfer milling cutter: iyafana ne-face milling cutter, kodwa idla ngokuba mfutshane kwaye ibukhali ngandlel' ithile (banencam ene-angle, ngokuxhomekeke kwi-chamfer efunwayo, 30º, 45º, 60º, njl. njl.). Olu hlobo lwe-milling cutter lusetyenziselwa ukudala i-chamfers kwiikona. Isenokusetyenziswa kwakhona kwi countersinks koomatshini.

umsiki wamazinyo

  • iblawudi ye-serrated: luhlobo lwe-cutter ngendlela yediski yokusika engasetyenziselwa ukwenza ii-undercuts okanye i-grooves, kunye neenotshi ezimile okwe-T ezidlula kwiqhekeza.

Sierra

  • Isarha yelongitudinal: Ifana neyangaphambili, kodwa inomahluko, kwaye oko kukuthi i-disc idla ngokuba yincinci ukusika i-grooves enzulu okanye ukwahlula iziqwenga. Zikwadla ngokuba nediameter enkulu.

reamer kwakhona

  • Umvuseleli: luhlobo lwesixhobo esisetyenziselwa ukwenza banzi imingxuma ekhoyo ukuyinika ubukhulu obuchanekileyo. Ukongezelela, bashiya ukugqiba okulungileyo, kwaye banokunyamezela okungcono kunee-drill bits.

fly cutter

  • fly cutter: Ludidi lokusila olunencakuba yokusika exhonywe kwibhari. Loo bar ingashukunyiswa ukwenza i-diameter yokusika enkulu okanye encinci.

iradius cutter

  • Umsiki werediyasi wangaphandle: sesinye isixhobo esikhethekileyo sokongeza iradiyasi kumda wangaphandle.

isixhobo sokukrola

  • isixhobo sokukrola: Zisetyenziselwa ukukrola imifanekiso, umbhalo okanye amagqabantshintshi kumphezulu wenxalenye.

  • isixhobo countersink: isetyenziselwa ukucwila emanzini okanye kwi-chamfers.

dovetail

  • dovetail cutter: sisixhobo esinemilo ethile ekhethekileyo kwaye sinokwenza i-undercut kwimathiriyeli.

Iiparamitha zolawulo lwe-CNC

cnc lathe

Okokugqibela, nayo ibalulekile cyazi iiparamitha zomatshini eziphazamisana nolawulo lwaba matshini be-CNC. Ukuba ufuna ukwenza izibalo, kufuneka wazi ukuba zininzi izixhobo ezinokukunceda, ukusuka kwii -apps zezixhobo eziphathwayo, ukuya kwisoftware yePC, ngokusebenzisa ezinye izixhobo zokubala ezikwi-intanethi. Eminye imizekelo onokuyisebenzisa kwizicwangciso ezifanelekileyo zezixhobo zakho ze-CNC zezi:

Iiparamitha zoomatshini ezibalulekileyo

Ewe iiparamitha ofanele uzazi xa ulawula umatshini we-CNC zezi:

Ipharamitha Inkcazo Units
n Inani leenguqu, oko kukuthi, ukujika ngomzuzu ngexesha lenkqubo yomatshini. Koomatshini bobuchwephesha kudla ngokuba phakathi kwe-6000 kunye ne-24000 RPM. Ibalwa kunye nefomula:

n = (Vc 1000) / (π D)

RPM
D Ukusika i-diameter, oko kukuthi, ubukhulu obukhulu besixhobo esidibana nenxalenye ngexesha lokusika. mm
Vc Ukusika isantya. Sisantya apho umatshini (i-lathe, i-drill, i-milling ...) inqumla i-chip ngexesha lokucoca (iphezulu D, phezulu Vc). Ibalwa kusetyenziswa ifomula:

vc = (π D n) / 1000

Isantya esiphezulu esichazwe ngumenzi wesixhobo akufanele sigqithwe. Ngaphandle koko:

  • Isantya esiphezulu kakhulu:
    • Ukunyuka kwezixhobo zokusebenza
    • Umgangatho ophantsi womatshini
    • Iziphene kwizinto ezithile
  • Isantya siphantsi kakhulu:
    • Ukukhutshwa kwetshiphu kakubi
    • Ukufudumeza okugqithisileyo okanye ukuvutha kwe-bur
    • Imveliso ephantsi kunye nokunyuka kweendleko
    • Iziphene kwizinto ezithile

Umzekelo, kuxhomekeke kwimathiriyeli inokuba:

  • Aluminiyam: 350
  • Umthi onzima: 400
  • I-Softwood kunye neplywood: 600
  • Iiplastiki: 250 - 600
m / min

(I-WHO)

Fz Ukutya ngezinyo ngalinye okanye iChip Load (ekwaziwa ngokuba yi-cl okanye iChip load). Oko kukuthi, ngumlinganiselo okanye ubukhulu bezinto eziqala izinyo ngalinye, udini okanye umlebe wesixhobo.
  • Ukwandisa i-Fz, i-Vc kufuneka inyuswe, i-RPM iyancipha okanye i-milling cutter enamazinyo ambalwa kufuneka isetyenziswe.
  • Ukunciphisa i-Fz kufuneka unciphise i-Vf, wandise i-RPM okanye usebenzise amazinyo amaninzi.

Ukubala iFz, ungasebenzisa ifomula:

Fz = Vf / (z n)

Kwaye ukuba ufuna ukubala ukondla ngenguquko nganye:

F = Fz z

mm
Vf Isantya sokuya phambili. Bubude obuhanjwe sisixhobo kwiyunithi nganye yexesha. Ifomula yile:

Vf = F n

Ukutya kufuneka kulawulwe:

  • Isantya esigqithisileyo:
    • Ulawulo lwetshiphu olungcono
    • Ixesha elincinci lokusika
    • Ukunxiba izixhobo ezincinci
    • Ukonyuka komngcipheko wokuqhekeka kwesixhobo
    • Umphezulu owenziwe ngoomatshini
  • Isantya sicotha kakhulu:
    • iitshiphusi ezindala
    • Umgangatho ongcono womphezulu womatshini
    • Ixesha elide lomatshini kunye neendleko eziphezulu
    • Ukunxiba izixhobo ezikhawulezileyo
mm / min

(om/min)

Z Inani lamazinyo esisiki okanye isixhobo. -
ap
Ubunzulu bokusika, ubunzulu be-axial, okanye ubunzulu bokudlula (kunokuvela njenge-wc). Ibhekisa kubunzulu esiphunyezwa sisixhobo ngokupasa ngakunye. Ubunzulu obungekho nzulu buya kunyanzela ukudlula ngaphezulu.

Kuxhomekeke kubude obuphezulu bokunqunyulwa (LC okanye I), ububanzi be-cutter (S okanye D). Kwaye inokulawulwa, umzekelo, ukuphinda kabini ubunzulu bokusika kufuneka unciphise umthwalo we-chip ngama-25%.

mm
ae Ububanzi bokusikwa, okanye ubunzulu be-radial cut. Iyafana nangasentla. mm

Le yile xabiso onokuthi ufumane kwi-CNC yomenzi womatshini we-manual, isofthiwe, okanye i-calculators, ukwenzela ukuba ulungelelanise iiparameters zohlobo lwe-machining (ngokwemida yemodeli kunye neempawu zobugcisa), izinto zesixhobo ngokwazo (zinokwaphula). , bend , overheat,... ukuba azifanelekanga), kunye nezinto ezisetyenzisiweyo (zinokuvelisa umatshini ompofu, iziphene kwinxalenye, ...). Kwaye zonke ezi parameters zikwafakwe kwiKhowudi ye-G, njengemiyalelo ye-S yokuguqula i-RPM, isantya sangaphambili usebenzisa imiyalelo ye-G-Code F, njl.

Ulwazi lomvelisi

Abavelisi bomatshini be-CNC banikezela ngedatha kwisantya sokusika, umthwalo we-chip, njl. , okanye kwakhona amaphepha akho edatha. Qinisekisa ukuba yeyemodeli yakho ethile, njengoko inokwahluka phakathi kweemodeli, nangona isuka kumatshini omnye.

Ukusuka kwezi data kunokwenzeka ukuba izibalo ngesandla, usebenzisa iifomula ezikwitheyibhile engentla, okanye usebenzisa izixhobo zokubala ezikwi-intanethi, usetyenziso, okanye isoftwe. Ukuba awunayo idatha yomenzi, unokhetho oluninzi:

  • Sebenzisa amava ukukukhokela, uhlala uqala ngamaxabiso eparameter agcinayo ukuze unganyanzeli. Oko kukuthi, uhlobo lolingo kunye nempazamo. Kwi-guild ngokuqhelekileyo ibizwa ngokuba yindlela yokuphulaphula kunye nokulinganisa, oko kukuthi, ukujonga ukuba umatshini wenza umsebenzi ngokufanelekileyo ngokusika nokugqiba, kunye nokulungelelanisa iiparitha ukwenza izilungiso eziyimfuneko.
  • Sebenzisa imanyuwali okanye itafile yamaxabiso evela komnye umenzi oneempawu ezifanayo (D, inani lamazinyo, izinto, ...).

Olunye ulwazi


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